Big Data Hadoop & Spark

What is MapReduce? Learn MapReduce Techniques and Architecture

MapReduce is a programming model along with a detailed implementation for generating and processing big datasets with a distributed, parallel algorithm within a cluster.

This is a framework that is used to process parallel programs right across massive datasets by using many different nodes. These different nodes are also referred as a cluster (if the nodes are on the same network and use hardware that’s similar) or even a grid (if they are together administratively and geographically, using heterogeneous software)

This processing can also occur in a file system which is unstructured or in a structured database system. This MapReduce can also be used to take advantage of the processing near the place it’s stored or locality of the data.

MapReduce Architecture – What Do Mapreduce Frameworks Compose Of?

There are basically three parts of the MapReduce framework:

 1. Map – A lot of workers apply the function to map the local data and write the output temporarily. There is also a master node which ensures the redundant data produces only one copy

 2. Shuffle – Here, the worker nodes are used to redistribute data that is based on output keys. These keys are also produced by the map function. All the data belonging to a single key is also located on a similar worker node.

 3. Reduce – The worker nodes also process individual groups of data per key and in parallel

 

How Does MapReduce Work?

MapReduce also allows the distributed processing of reduction and map operations. These maps can also be performed parallelly, as long as the operation of mapping is independent of one another. This is generally limited to the number of independent sources and the CPUs next to each source. This set of “reducers” can also perform with a reduction phase,

As long as the outputs of the operation which share the same key are shown to the reducer at one time, the function is associative. This process may appear a bit inefficient compared to other algorithms, which are traditionally sequential but MapReduce can be applied to massive datasets which are significantly bigger than the other servers.

This also offers the possibility of recovering partial failure of storage and servers that may occur during an operation, as long as the input of data is available.

Distribution And Working:

The function of MapReduce parcels out many operations on datasets to different individual nodes in a network. The nodes are expected to report periodically with status updates. If these nodes fall silent for a longer interval, the master node then marks it as dead and sends it to another node. Also, atomic operations are used for naming these outputs to ensure there aren’t other conflicting threads in parallel.

It is also possible to copy them onto another name while renaming these files along with the name of the task.

These operations work in the same way, and because of the inferior properties with regards to parallel operations, master nodes attempt to schedule reduction operations. This is done on the same node or the same rack as the node which is holding the data that is being worked on. It is desirable and positive because it saves bandwidth throughout the backbone of the data centre.

These implementations are not reliable, however. In older versions, NameNode was just one point of failure for the distributed system. Later versions have a higher availability along with a passive/active fail over.

Thus, MapReduce is a great function that can be used to make Hadoop programs much easier. They can be used to make larger datasets easier to manage and take off the overall load in the bandwidth available

 

 

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