A cellular network is a communication network or a mobile network which provides services by using a large number of base stations. A base station is a radio transmitter which maintains the communication between the network and the mobile users through a link. The network is distributed over land areas called ‘cells’. When joined together these cells provide coverage over a wide area. This enables numerous portable transceivers like mobile, tablet, laptops to communicate with each other.
In this blog we will read about one such mobile network which is the upcoming 5G network. Also we will discuss the previous mobile networks types.
Different types of mobile networks that have been used by the user till date are:
1G Network: it refers to the first generation of wireless telephone technology. It was introduced in the 1980s and was the analog telecommunications standard used by the user until the introduction of the 2G network.
2G Network: GSM which stands for Global System for Mobile Communication is a standard developed by European Telecommunications Standard Institute(ETSI) to describe the protocol for 2G. 2G, which stands for the second generation of digital cellular networks, was first deployed in 1991. This technology enables the various networks to provide services such as picture messages, text messages or SMS(Short Message Service) and MMS(Multimedia Message). All the text messages and phone conversations sent over this network are digitally encrypted, that is, the transfer of data happens in such a way that only the receiver can receive and read it.
1G network retroactively got replaced after the 2G network was launched. Radio signal on the 1G network was analog while on the 2G network it was digital.
3G Network: this was the third generation wireless telephone technology and an upgrade for the 2G network. It was introduced in 1998 to provide faster data transmission speed that can support video calling and internet access.
4G Network: this refers to the 4th generation broadband cellular network technology that was released in 2008. Its first release was Long Term Evolution, which is, LTE standards which were commercially deployed in 2009. After that, it was considered as 4G LTE. It is known for its high speed and to support demanding services like gaming services, HD mobile TV, video conferencing and 3D TV.
However one of the inconveniences faced by the user was in order to make or receive 4G voice calls, the subscriber handset must be 4G enabled.
5G Network: Talking about the upcoming wireless technology for the digital cellular networks, 5G or fifth generation, whose wide deployment began in 2019. It intends to provide faster speed and more reliable connections on smartphones and other devices. The main advantage of 5G network is that the data transmission rate is much higher than the previous cellular network, up to 10Gbit/s.
Unlike LTE, 5G operates on three different frequency spectrum bands :
- High band/ Millimeter band: 5G millimeter band is the fastest, with actual speeds often being 1-2 Gbit/s down, but sometimes with major weaknesses. The main drawback of the millimeter band is that it has a low coverage area as it has difficulty traversing many walls and windows.
- Mid-band: it is the most widely deployed in over 20 networks. It provides faster speed and lower latency.
- Low-band: 5G low band offers similar capacity as advanced 4G. Although it offers great coverage area and wall penetration, the peak data speeds will top out around 100Mbps.
The performance goal of 5G is high data rates, reduced latency, energy savings, reduced costs, increased system capacity, and large scale device connectivity. Other than these let’s check out two of the performance metrics in brief:
- Speed- 5G speed will initially range from ~50 Mbit/s to over 2 gigabits and is expected to grow to even 100 Gbit/s that is 100x faster than 4G. The fastest 5G known as mmWave delivers a speed of up to and over 2 Gbit/s
- Latency- as the performance goal of the 5G network is reduced latency. It has been reported that the latency on its 5G early deployment is 30ms. Edge servers(https://acadgild.com/blog/edge-computing) close to the towers can reduce latency to 10-20ms.
- Faster internet speed
- 5G compatible smartphone required
- Extensive application of cloud technology as data will be uploaded to the cloud
- Development of the Internet of Things(IoT)
- The low latency of 5G enables the development bottleneck of VR to be broken
- Public safety
- Smart home
Some of the countries already have access to the 5G network from 2016 and 2017. Others got it at the end of 2019 and some are expecting to have it at the beginning or mid of 2020.
While others may also get it in 2021 or 2022
That was all about the 5G network. I hope you liked this blog.
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